Posted on 05/12/2023
Woven cloth for the Toraja people is not just cloth. Toraja
woven cloth has an implied meaning in each motif and pattern and its use cannot
be done carelessly.
Toraja woven cloth is an important element in Toraja
culture. This woven cloth is usually used in the Rambu Tuka (life
ceremony) and Rambu Solo' (death ceremony) ceremonies. In the Aluk
Todolo belief, if the Rapasan (nobility) dies, their body must be
wrapped in woven cloth and a minimum of 24 buffalo must be slaughtered. This
shows that woven cloth is considered a symbol of prosperity.
Toraja weaving craft is a skill that has been passed down
from generation to generation. Toraja weaving craftsmen can be found in the
Sa'dan area, North Toraja. This cloth is woven using a traditional loom made of
wood and bamboo called unuran. Making this woven cloth takes quite a
long time. Making one piece of cloth can take one week. Apart from being used
for everyday use, Toraja woven cloth is also used in traditional ceremonies.
Previously, this woven cloth was only used at traditional events and was worn
by the nobility and the economically well-off. As time goes by, this woven
cloth can now be used by all groups.
Toraja woven cloth is made from cotton or pineapple fibers
that have been spun so that the cloth is rough and heavy. Pineapple fiber is
currently rare so it is rarely used. Toraja woven cloth uses colors made from
natural dyes sourced from plants in Toraja. The colors used are also chosen to
last a long time. Usually the colors used tend to be dark, such as red, black,
brown and dark blue.
In general, Toraja woven cloth is divided into two types,
namely Paruki woven cloth and Sarita woven cloth. Paruki is a
technique for weaving cloth in reverse. This woven cloth has a motif that can
only be seen behind the cloth being woven. This weaving technique is quite
complicated for the weavers. Paruki cloth was previously worn by people
during traditional ceremonies. The Sarita cloth is a sacred cloth that
is only worn by parengnge' (traditional leaders) and patungan bia' and
tominaa (religious leaders). Sarita cloth is also worn as decoration at
the Rambu Solo' ceremony if the deceased is from the noble class. This
cloth is not only worn by humans but is also placed as decoration on the main
object in ceremonies and placed on buffalo and pigs that will be slaughtered.
Paruki cloth generally only has one motif, namely Pa'sekong
Kandaure. Pa'sekong Kandaure consists of two words, namely Sekong
which means curve, circle, or winding, and Kandaure which is jewelry or
accessories made from beads worn by Toraja women combined with traditional
clothing when participating in traditional events. The meaning is that the
children and grandchildren of the Torajan people will always live in happiness
like light and beauty like Kandaure. This motif is a motif that
symbolizes the greatness of Toraja women. If a woman dies in Toraja, her coffin
will be covered with cloth with this motif.
Sarita cloth has various motifs. The motifs used on Sarita
woven cloth depict the social values of Toraja society. These motives include:
1. Tau-tau motif
Tau means person, so literally, Tau-tau means person. This
motif shows the social strata of the wearer. Cloth with this motif is divided
into two, namely Tau-tau Lampa and Tau-tau Nangka.
2. Pa'tedong motif
This motif symbolizes the strength, prosperity and nobility
of the Toraja people.
3. Pa'tangke Lumu' motif
This motif describes the ways of life of the Torajan people
in fulfilling their daily needs, which they hope can be done in honest ways,
like moss that can live on the surface of a stone.
4. Pa'bulu Londong motif
This motif symbolizes leadership that is wise and wise,
trustworthy because it always says the right thing.
5. Pa'bare Allo motif
This motif is in the shape of a sun circle. This motif
symbolizes Puang Matua (God Almighty) and depicts the sun shining
brightly giving life to all creatures in the universe.
A glimpse of information about the beautiful and distinctive
Toraja woven cloth. We hope that Toraja woven cloth will become a cultural
heritage that will always be maintained so that it does not lose its meaning
and identity. If Toraja woven cloth depicts the feminine side of Toraja, then
what is suitable for depicting the masculine side is Toraja Coffee. Known for
its earthy, nutty, spice and low acidity character, Toraja Coffee is widely
known abroad. To taste quality Toraja Coffee, you can try coffee from the
Sulotco plantation in the Rantekarua Mountains, Bolokan.
Fungsi dan Makna Simbolik Motif Kain Tenun Tradisional
Toraja, Rince Tumba Marante, Abd. Aziz Ahmad, Hasnawati, 2018