Posted on 26/01/2024
For a long time, Toraja Coffee has been one of the best
coffees in Indonesia. Its high popularity makes Toraja Coffee highly sought
after by fans not only from Indonesia but also from abroad.
Arabica coffee plantations have existed in Toraja since the
16th century when it was introduced by people from the Gowa Kingdom who
obtained it from Arab traders. Since then, the coffee trade in South Sumatra
has grown rapidly, leading to a war to monopolize the Toraja black pearl trade.
Ups and downs then hit the growth of coffee plantations in
Toraja starting from attacks by leaf rust disease which destroyed Arabica
coffee plants, the emergence of Robusta coffee which was introduced by the
Dutch and was successful in replacing Arabica, the decline of trade due to the
issue of disease caused by drinking coffee, neglected during the war and after
independence, the return to development. Arabica coffee plantations, and delays
in coffee distribution during the DI/TII rebellion era. Now Toraja Arabica
coffee plantations have revived and produced thousands of tons of coffee, most
of which is exported abroad.
Indonesia will become the 3rd largest coffee-producing
country in the world in 2022, behind Brazil and Vietnam. Indonesian coffee
production reached 794,800 tonnes that year, an increase of 1.1% compared to
the previous year. Most Indonesian coffee products, both Arabica and
Robusta, are exported to several countries, including the United States (54,487
tonnes), Malaysia (38,551 tonnes), Egypt (32,539 tonnes), Japan (23,484
tonnes), Germany (21,322 tonnes), Italy (27,237 tonnes). tons), England (21,349
tons), Belgium (14,758 tons), Russia (24,182 tons), and India (19,997 tons).
98.01% of coffee is sent as an export commodity in the form of green beans or
dry beans that have not been fried.
Coffee plantations in Indonesia in 2022 will have an area of
1.29 million hectares (ha). In terms of management, the majority of coffee
plantations in Indonesia are owned by the people, namely an area of 1.26 ha.
Meanwhile, the area of large-scale coffee plantations managed by the state and
private companies is 23,200 ha. Of that number, South Sulawesi contributes the
largest coffee plantations, namely 268,000 ha. This position is followed by
Lampung and Aceh with coffee plantation areas of 156,500 ha and 126,600 ha,
The area of coffee plantations in Tana Toraja itself is
10,772 ha with Bittuang District having the largest coffee plantation at 1,654
ha, followed by Gandangbatu Sillanan District and Mengkendek District with
areas of 1,597 ha and 970 ha respectively. Of the 19 sub-districts in Tana
Toraja Regency, all of them have coffee plantations with varying areas. Of the
coffee plantation area, the Tana Toraja coffee harvest will be 3,567.82 tons in
For North Toraja Regency, the area of its coffee plantations
is 11,235.8 ha. The area with the largest coffee plantations is in Buntu
Pepasan District, namely 2,110 ha. The North Toraja coffee harvest is 7,888
tons based on 2021 data.
Coffee plantations in Toraja are actually supported by
supportive natural conditions, such as locations in the mountains with an
altitude of 1,000-2,500 meters above sea level and average temperatures ranging
between 15° C - 28° C with air humidity between 82 - 86%, average rainfall an
average of 1500 mm/year to more than 3500 mm/year. Arabica coffee plants will
thrive in the conditions mentioned.
Good coffee plant growth is not always directly proportional
to harvest productivity. This is a problem in Toraja coffee plantations. There
are several factors that cause the low production of Toraja coffee. Because
most of the coffee plantations in Toraja are smallholder plantations, the
production process, both harvest and post-harvest, is still traditional. The
condition of plantations on steep slopes also means that the harvesting process
cannot take place quickly and simultaneously. Peeling the cherry skin and
washing it is done manually with simple tools. The drying process is also
carried out depending on natural conditions. This is what causes Toraja Coffee
production to be limited and the price to be high.
With the high demand for Toraja Coffee, it is hoped that the
authorities can provide assistance to coffee farmers to get a more decent
income from one of Indonesia's best coffees. Farmers' needs such as training
and counseling as well as production facilities (seeds, pesticides, etc.), and policies that can help farmers, are sought to increase the productivity of
coffee farmers so they can sell their coffee beans at competitive prices.
The Sulotco Jaya Abadi coffee plantation also collaborates with farmer partners and local communities to cultivate the plantation. Sulotco manages plantations using a profit-sharing system with the company first meeting the farmers' production input needs. It is hoped that with this system, coffee farmers will get more results and become more prosperous. It is hoped that the enjoyment of Toraja Coffee will not only bring happiness to its drinkers but also bring smiles to those producing it upstream.